Ingredients and measurements

Meanings of ingredients and measurements on this site.  So if not otherwise specified, use the following:

flour
all-purpose flour

sugar
granulated sugar

powdered sugar
confectioner’s sugar or superfine sugar

vanilla
imitation vanilla extract.  10x cheaper, and in baked goods, just as good as the real thing.  Cook’s Illustrated, in the March 2009 magazine (also available online), did a taste test between real and imitation vanilla (emphasis mine):

We baked three yellow cakes and three batches of vanilla cookies—and waited.
To our surprise, each recipe showed two distinct outcomes. In cake, the pure vanilla came out on top but just a hair ahead of the high-ranking imitation. In cookies, the pure vanilla dropped to last place, and that high-ranking imitation soared to first place. As it turns out, flavor and aroma compounds in vanilla begin to bake off at around 280 to 300 degrees. Cakes rarely exceed an internal temperature above 210 degrees; cookies become much hotter as they bake. As a result, pure vanilla kept a slight flavor advantage in the cake—but not in the cookies.

eggs
large Grade A eggs

brown sugar
light brown sugar

tsp
teaspoon

tbsp
tablespoon

ginger, nutmeg, cloves
ground

butter
unsalted